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How Do Bitcoin ATMs Work? A Simplified Overview

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bitcoin atm

You may have probably encountered Bitcoin ATMs at various establishments like convenience stores, gas stations, and malls. 

While they may resemble traditional ATMs, these kiosks enable customers to purchase, and sometimes sell, cryptocurrency tokens using cash.


The history of Bitcoin ATMs is relatively short, but it reflects the rapid growth and evolution of the cryptocurrency market. Here are some key points:

Early Beginnings

  • October 29, 2013: The world’s first publicly available Bitcoin ATM, a Robocoin machine, opened in Vancouver, Canada, at the Waves Coffee Shop.
  • December 8, 2013: Europe saw its first Bitcoin ATM installed in Bratislava, Slovakia.
  • February 18, 2014: The first Bitcoin ATM in the United States went live in a cigar bar in Albuquerque, New Mexico, but it was removed a month later.
  • May 2014: The first licensed Bitcoin ATM in the US, developed by Coinme, was installed at the Spitfire Grill in Seattle, Washington.

Growth and Challenges

Since the early days, the number of Bitcoin ATMs has grown significantly. According to data from CoinATMRadar, Bitcoin ATMs surged in popularity during the peak of the crypto bull run between 2020 and mid-2022, reaching up to 38,800 installations across the US at their peak.

  • However, the industry has also faced challenges, including regulatory scrutiny and the volatility of the cryptocurrency market.
  • In February 2023, a major Bitcoin ATM operator, Cash Cloud, filed for bankruptcy due to its exposure to the cryptocurrency crash and financial difficulties. 
  • Regulatory efforts have also emerged, with some cases like the arrest of three individuals operating unlicensed Bitcoin ATMs in Ohio in March 2023.

Looking Forward

Despite the challenges, the presence of Bitcoin ATMs reflects the growing adoption of cryptocurrencies and their integration into traditional financial systems.

How Do They Work?

Unlike traditional ATMs connected to your bank account, Bitcoin ATMs connect to cryptocurrency exchanges to facilitate buying or selling Bitcoin (or other supported cryptocurrencies) using cash or sometimes debit cards. They do not dispense Bitcoin directly but rather transfer it to your digital cryptocurrency wallet, which is where you store your Bitcoin.


  1. Locate a Bitcoin ATM: Use a service like Coin ATM Radar to find one near you.
  1. Choose the “Buy” option: The ATM interface will guide you through the process.
  1. Provide your wallet address: You can either scan a QR code linked to your wallet or manually enter the address.
  1. Insert cash: The ATM will specify the amount based on the current exchange rate and any fees.
  1. Confirmation and receipt: Once confirmed, the Bitcoin will be transferred to your wallet, and you’ll receive a receipt.

Additional Points

  • Transaction fees: Be aware of the fees associated with using a Bitcoin ATM, which can be higher than those on online exchanges.
  • Two-way vs. one-way machines: Some ATMs are bidirectional, allowing both buying and selling Bitcoin, while others are unidirectional, supporting only one function.
  • Security: Always ensure you’re using a reputable Bitcoin ATM operator and exercise caution when handling cash and your wallet information.

How Do Bad Actors Use Crypto ATMs To Commit Fraud?

While Bitcoin and crypto ATMs offer an easy way to buy and sell cryptocurrencies, they have become a primary medium for bad actors due to the relative anonymity surrounding them. Here are some ways criminals are exploiting these machines to commit fraud:

Social Engineering Scams

  • Impersonating authority figures: Scammers pose as investment advisors, tech support, or other trusted individuals. They convince victims to send cryptocurrency through ATMs as part of a “secure” transaction, often targeting vulnerable populations unfamiliar with the technology.
  • Fake investment schemes: Criminals lure victims with promises of high returns by directing them to purchase cryptocurrency via ATMs and transfer it to their wallets, ultimately stealing the invested funds.
  • Romance scams: These scams involve building online relationships and manipulating victims into sending cryptocurrency through ATMs for fake investments or fabricated emergencies.

Exploiting ATM Vulnerabilities

  • Skimming: Criminals install hidden devices on ATMs to steal user information like PINs and card details, allowing them to withdraw funds or sell stolen information on the dark web.
  • Malware injection: Malicious software can be installed on ATMs to manipulate transactions, redirecting funds to the criminals’ wallets.
  • Phishing attacks: Fake ATM interfaces or websites can trick users into entering their credentials and personal information, leading to stolen funds or compromised accounts.

Facilitating Illegal Activities

  • Money laundering: Criminals use crypto ATMs to convert illegally obtained cash into cryptocurrency, making it harder to trace and hindering law enforcement efforts.
  • Funding illegal purchases: Crypto ATMs can be used to anonymously purchase illegal goods or services on the dark web, bypassing traditional financial systems.

Challenges In Combating Fraud

  • Anonymity: Cryptocurrency transactions are often pseudonymous, making it difficult to track down criminals and recover stolen funds.
  • Regulation: The evolving regulatory landscape surrounding cryptocurrencies can create loopholes that criminals exploit.
  • Consumer awareness: Many users are unfamiliar with the risks associated with crypto ATMs, making them more susceptible to scams and social engineering tactics.

It’s important to be cautious and exercise due diligence when using crypto ATMs. Here are some safety tips:

  • Only use reputable and well-maintained ATMs from established operators.
  • Be wary of anyone urging you to use a specific ATM or invest in cryptocurrency through sudden, unexpected opportunities.
  • Never share your PIN or personal information with anyone, even someone claiming to be from technical support or law enforcement.
  • Educate yourself about cryptocurrencies and the risks associated with using crypto ATMs.

By being informed and vigilant, you can help minimize your risk of becoming a victim of fraud involving crypto ATMs.

Final Thoughts

As we reflect on the role of Bitcoin ATMs and the broader crypto landscape, it is clear that they represent both an opportunity and a challenge for the industry’s maturation. Bitcoin ATMs have played a significant role in making cryptocurrencies more accessible to the masses, offering a tangible bridge between the digital realm of blockchain and everyday cash transactions. However, as with any emerging technology, there are inherent risks and challenges, particularly when it comes to addressing criminal activities.

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