Cryptocurrency Guide | Guides

Understanding Blockchain and How It Works


Jay Solano


Tags Editor's Choice / Slider Posts

Reading time

5 mins
Last update


Jay Solano


Editor's Choice / Slider Posts

Reading time

5 mins
Last update


Jay Solano


Editor's Choice, Slider Posts

Reading time

5 mins
Last update


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Key Takeaways

  • Blockchain is a decentralized digital ledger system that stores data in permanent, tamper-proof blocks. This creates a secure and transparent record of transactions, eliminating the need for a central authority for verification.
  • Blockchain has three core features: immutability (unchangeable data), decentralization (distributed storage), and consensus (agreement among participants).
  • Blockchain offers enhanced security, increased efficiency, faster audits, and potential for financial inclusion.

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain technology is a decentralized digital ledger system. It stores data in immutable blocks, each containing a cryptographic hash of the previous block, linking them together into a secure chain. This prevents data manipulation without changing the following blocks and maintains transparency in the network. This allows the creation of an immutable and verifiable record of transactions, removing the need for an authority for verification. 

Why is Blockchain Important?

Blockchain creates a decentralized system, meaning there’s no single authority. Instead, everyone on the network keeps a copy of the transaction record (like a shared record book). This record is stored in secure “blocks” that are chained together.

3 Key Features of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology relies on three core features that make it secure and trustworthy:

  1. Immutability: Blockchain information is permanent. Once added, it can’t be deleted or changed, like a digital record. This tamper-proof design guarantees a reliable and secure history of transactions. If someone tries to change a block, it would be obvious to everyone on the network.
  2. Decentralization: Blockchain stores information across a network of computers, not just one. This makes it more secure and transparent. Everyone has a copy, so there’s no need to trust a single source.
  3. Consensus: Not one computer decides what’s true on a blockchain. Instead, most computers on the network (like a majority vote) need to agree on a transaction before it’s added. This keeps things fair and prevents fake transactions.

3 Key Components of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology has three key components:

  1. Distributed Ledger: This acts as a shared database that is accessible to everyone on the network. It stores all transactions permanently and transparently, like public record book.
  1. Smart Contracts:  These are automatic agreements written in code. They live on the blockchain and run automatically when certain conditions are met. This removes the need for third-party verification and simplifies processes.
  1. Public Key Cryptography: This is the security backbone of blockchain. It assigns two digital keys to each participant: a public key (known to everyone) and a private key (kept secret). These keys work together to protect information and allows authorized users to interact with the blockchain.

How Does a Blockchain Work?

Think of a digital record book everyone on a network can see and contribute to. This record book is called a blockchain. Here’s how transactions are added securely:

  1. Record the Transaction: Details like “who sent what to whom” and “when it happened” are recorded in a block, like a new page in the record book.
  2. Get Consensus: Most people on the network need to agree the transaction is valid, like a group vote. This make sure that everyone is on the same page.
  3. Link the blocks: Once approved, the transaction block is linked to the previous block using a special code, like a chain. If someone tries to change a block, the code breaks, alerting everyone.
  4. Share the ledger: Everyone on the network receives a copy of the updated record book, keeping everyone updated.

This system makes it very difficult to change information because everyone has a copy and changes are obvious. It’s like a secure and transparent way of keeping track of things on a network. 

Types of Blockchain Networks

There are two main categories of blockchain networks:

  • Public Blockchains: Think of these as open networks. Anyone can join, read data, and even participate in verifying transactions (like mining cryptocurrency). Bitcoin and Ethereum are popular examples.
  • Private Blockchains: These are private networks controlled by a single organization. They offer more control over who can access and change data. Ripple, used by banks for faster transactions, is an example.

Hybrid and Consortium Blockchains (Optional):

These are variations that combine aspects of public and private networks:

  • Hybrid Blockchains: Imagine a network with both public and private sections. Some data is open to everyone, while other parts are restricted to authorized users.
  • Consortium Blockchains: A group of organizations that come together to manage a shared blockchain. This is useful for industries where collaboration is necessary, like supply chain management.

Benefits of Blockchain Technology

  • Enhanced Security: Cryptographic measures and the absence of central control make changing data almost impossible.
  • Increased Efficiency: Smart contracts and transparency simplify transactions, decrease time and costs.
  • Faster Audits: Immutable chronological records simplify and speed up the auditing process.

Difference Between Blockchain and Bitcoin

  • Blockchain: A technology for secure, transparent record-keeping. Like a shared public ledger, everyone can see but no one can change. It’s used for various applications.
  • Bitcoin: A digital currency built on blockchain technology. It’s like a specific use case (money) on a wider platform (record-keeping).

Pros and Cons of Blockchain

Blockchain technology offers a different way to store and share information securely, but it has advantages and disadvantages. 


  • More accurate data due to automatic verification
  • Lower costs by cutting out intermediaries
  • Highly secure and transparent transactions
  • Potential for financial access in unstable regions


  • High energy consumption for some blockchains
  • Slow transaction speeds compared to traditional systems
  • Past association with illegal activities
  • Unclear regulations and data storage limitations

Even with these disadvantages, blockchain holds a lot of potential to change different industries.

Final Thoughts

Blockchain technology is still developing, but it has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of our lives. Its core features – immutability, decentralization, and consensus – offer a secure and transparent way to store and share data. 

As blockchain technology matures and regulations develop, we can expect to see more innovative use cases. The future of blockchain is bright, and it has the capacity to create a more secure, efficient, and reliable digital world.